This style is considered a “problem solving” style because the individual seeks to find a solution that fully satisfies both parties. Integrating consists of all prates sharing their ideas openly, and working to find an eﬀective resolution. The objective is to learn from, and merge ideas and perspectives of all group members. You usually have to push harder to be truly integrative, which requires time, energy, and commitment from everyone involved.
This style involves the individual putting the needs of other parties before his/
her own. The objective is to consider others’ input and embrace their ideas.
This style involves both parties giving up something in order to come to a
mutually acceptable decision. The objective is to come up with a solution
that is acceptable to all parties involved.
This style can fail to satisfy the needs of either party, although avoiding a volatile and escalating situation is necessary at times. The objective is to avoid the conﬂict entirely
This style consists of persuading or forceful behavior in order to satisfy your
own needs, at the expense of the other party. The objective is to get your idea
accepted by the other parties.
First of all, we know that our rule depends on morality and the value of human. However, the advantage of technology is created some acts which can harm for human. All of them comes from human, so we should created some rules which impact to manufactures and drivers or also sellers.
This rule can depend on each region, but it’s always focus on the safely of human. First, we should create law for manufactures for testing and checking equipment of car to make sure it don’t have the error or have newest update. The manufactures must take full responsibility as we called that was guarantee at least 4 years. In this 2 years, the manufactures must contact with the drivers who bought the cars in order to check the error of the cars follow on the periodic, everything that fixed during that time are free for drivers. The manufacture must training the driver after selling this car. If their has many different mode, they must recommend for the driver and seller to make sure they know how to use this mode.
Secondly, we should create rule for the driver who using autonomous vehicles. If they using this cars, they must be obligated to checking follow on the periodic to make sure driving safely. We must created driving testing course and give them license if they pass over some test in order to let them know how to use this smart car like as normal car. About seller, they must be trained by the manufactures to let them know how important in using different mode. The seller should be limited to make easiness in controlling and managing smart cars which were called autonomous vehicles.
Finally, we should release the general rule to test and check all of autonomous vehicles. We should create some safety credits in testing car. If the car pass over this condition, it’s was certificated by credit which was related in this condition. Not only that, we also created some competition for people in order to contribute new idea to make smart car more and more safely.
The accident of Carlos comes from the setting of autonomous vehicle. The owner of this car is Alice who bought this vehicle from Bob. First of all, we should focus on the rule which was released by the government of that place. If the rule allow this car of Alice driving in this place, also included aggressive mode and not recommend to the user, it’s not Alice fault. If the rule ban the car look like Alice car, we can incriminate Bob and Alice because of using illegal car. However, we should target the standard of autonomous car in order to find the error, if the error come from the equipment or technology of car, the manufacture who made that car must be indemnified and be subject to compensation Carlos’s accident. Everything has two sides, we should test again this car to make sure that the car is safe.
All of people want to save time when driving car, so the manufactures know that and they made the car autonomous vehicle has different settings, some more aggressive, i think that the manufacture have recommendation for this car, but Alice ignore this suggestion in this mode, so mean that Alice’s fault. Therefore, a part which cause this accident came from Bob who have sold this car to Alice because he don’t let Alice know. I think in this case, we should fine Bob and Alice.
About Carlos, who was jaywalking on pedestrian, so he also had a negligence. However, he across the road without checking all around, so he must be fined and lend oneself to his hurt. The last thing that i would like to mention is the government, if that car is allow driving in all mode and it have accident, the government must responsible for Carlos’s accident, because it not only comes from the manufactures but also comes from the testing of government.
If governmental is legislation, it is true that if the car is “legal” then all the features should follow certain standards. The AVs, should base on the rule of the governmental release. Some functions with belong to the manufactures but if it over the rule of government, this accident must be beard by the manufacture. Finally, we should have the rules which would be released as detail as they can, about the manufacture, they should have some recommend and using guide to let the user know how to use this car and have contract to make them understand that apply the end user.
In general, robotic systems, including AVs, the camera is attached to the car to recognize the movement of other cars as well as move outside, especially in highway,… The data is the image from the camera which will be sent to the main board to be processed. Then the AV will be able to know who is standing in front of them. Moreover the autonomous car can detect weather that one is the one they have already known. The infrared sensor helps AV to avoid object in a low or high height, it can also tell the objects are in the front so that the AV can avoid them when moving. Chipset has the function of receiving signals from any infrared sensors to process and give the results back to the main board. The main board has a slot which is for pitching a SIM card to create a link that the product can access with the server to process data, besides, it also has memory card, bluetooth, GPS, navigator to exchange and save data. The touching pad which on the car to help AV access with the available function on the car. The sound bar have micro that help AV input the data through recognizing voices and record.
When moving outside, the AV can use the moving outside function attached to the GPS and the position, the AV can track their ways, where they are standing and how far it is from where they are standing to the place they want to go to. GPS is always updated when they are walking and the position will send the information back to the server to process through the technology developed to know where they are heading to. The sensor will be activated when the start moving to help them know things can impact on the way they move. The battery is the power source for the device to run stable and make sure the users’ health.
In order to permit autonomous operation without an alert backup driver at the ready, the technology will need to degrade gracefully, in such a way that a catastrophe is avoided. For example, if some element of the system fails in the middle of a curve in busy traffic, there must be a sufficiently robust back-up system so that even with the failure, the vehicle can maneuver to a safe stop. Developing this level of reliability is challenging.
Software upgrades also could pose challenges, as they might need to be backward-compatible with earlier models of vehicles and sensor systems. Moreover, as more vehicle models oﬀer autonomous driving features, software and other system upgrades will have to perform on increasingly diverse platforms, making reliability and quality assurance all the more challenging. System security is also a concern, so that viruses or malware are prevented from subverting proper functioning of vehicles’ systems.
The artificial intelligence technology (AI) is a new technology nowadays, it helps the device to learn from human and release the problems that human need. It can understand and reflect the act of human to have the best solution. This technology is tending to be the future’s technology. More over, natural language processing technology is a modern technology which is already available, although voices from some suppliers have not yet been natural.
In this case, we discuss about the SAE International classification for autonomous vehicles. We also have 5 levels from no technology integrated to the car at level 0.
Level 0: No automation
Does what it says on the tin. The car is not automated in any way and relies on a human for all of the tasks. It’s also know that all things such as: Execution of Steering and Acceleration/ Deceleration – Monitoring of Driving Environment – Fallback
Performance of Dynamic Driving Task are depends on the processing of human.
Level 1: Driver assistance
Level 1 involves the human and a computer system working together on tasks, with the majority of the work being done by the person at the wheel. It encompasses many cars that are already on the road today running with so-called assistance modes such as Jaguar Land Rover’s experimental off-road vehicles, capable of using off-road cruise control.
SAE International explains level 1 driver assistance systems include steering, acceleration/deceleration as well as features that use “information about the driving environment”. Ultimately, though, the human is expected to do the majority of the work.
Level 2: Partial automation
Here’s where things start to get serious. In level 2 systems, the steering and speed of the vehicle are controlled by “one or more driver assistance systems” but a human controls the other elements of driving.
Tesla’s Autopilot system has been described as being within the level 2 bracket, although it is also considered, by some, to be a level 3 vehicle. It’s testing in some development countries, especially in Dubai.
Level 3: Partial automation
Vehicles in level 3 and above are considered “automated driving systems”. The substantial difference here is that the vehicles are able to monitor the driving environment around them. Crucially, these types of vehicles make decisions themselves. For instance, a level 3 car will be capable of seeing a slower moving vehicle in front of it before taking the decision to overtake. The human is on hand, mostly, to intervene if things go wrong.
Level 4: High automation
The autonomous cars Ford wants to put on the road by 2021 are considered to be level 4 vehicles.
SAE describes this as having “driving mode-specific performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task, even if a human driver does not respond appropriately to a request to intervene”. Put more simply, if something goes wrong, the car can handle it itself.
Level 5: Full automation
In this scenario, no human control of a vehicle is needed at all. Level five has full automation and vehicles don’t need any pedals, steering wheels, or controls for a human to take charge. Google, through its Waymo subsidiary, is working on producing this level of automation.
We are known that the function of autonomous car, so everything has both sides. In this stage, we will discuss on the affected side of this smart car:
-> Easy to use
-> Make human feel comfortable
-> We can do other things when we are driving in smart car
-> Easier to control and changing equipment
-> Some smart car have eco-friendly
-> The car can be hacked and can cause accident
-> Sometimes, it can create error and maybe cause dangerous for people
-> It’s must be repair and test follow on periodic
These are something that we should know the level of autonomous car. Although it still have some errors, it can replace self-driving and make the customer feel comfortable. In the future, the autonomous car will popular, we also interact with car to know that how long we go to somewhere, reduce traffic jam by using smart system or reduce traffic accidents.
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